Before we explain what Pyrroles in urine test is used for, please read the following important announcement.

Bio Balance Health bought the Pyrroles in urine test into Australia in 2004.
We have continued to improve this test through research and clinical observation.


The only accurate information regarding Pyrroles, including research projects, is found on these pages and the AAL website.
WHY? We have done the work of identifying the molecules involved, and providing a separate measure for pyrroles in urine.
Symptoms are yet to be confirmed so please continue to use the long lists already in use until this is clarified.

Pyrroles in Urine is now a very useful test when done properly.

BBH informs you that the only laboratory which provides an accurate test is AAL

All other laboratories, a major part of the combined figure is likely Urobilinogen, a gut by product.

It is the responsibility of the health practitioner to ensure they base their treatment plan on accurate knowledge.

Published Research – February 2023:

Improve treatment of mental health symptoms by identifying chemical imbalances related to oxidative stress and other disorders, particularly bile disorders.

Pyrroles as a Potential Biomarker for Oxidative Stress Disorders

by Brett Lambert, Annalese Semmler, Cristina Beer and Joanne Voisey


Pyrroles have been used for many years as a warning sign of mental health issues. Before pyrroles we could not measure the severity of mental health problems in individuals. Now, thanks to modern technology, we can, and we can also distinguish urobilinogen as a separate measure so it isn’t confused with the pyrrole measure.

Doctors trained in understanding pyrroles can then develop management plans specific for each individual. Reduction in the pyrrole count combined with reduction in symptoms should confirm the success of their plan. People who have had their pyrrole levels reduced to close to normal say they have never felt better.

Getting better does not take overnight. Some people may need managing for the rest of their life. Some get to feeling well in a short period of time and only manage pyrroles at times of stress.

What triggers this production of Pyrroles?

Pyrrole is a result of the body not breaking down old blood products properly. This is a stress response. The stress could be from many things and it is very individual. For some it is money worries, some poor diet, some work stress, some bullying, some toxic products in their system. Pyrroles in urine is a biomarker measure of the severity of this stress response.

The plan? Fix the pyrroles by fixing the underlying problem. Those people lucky enough to know a doctor understands pyrroles in urine have found great relief.

Go to the AAL website to learn some more complex details about pyrrole.

Go to our doctor page to find a doctor near you who understands. Many do online consultations. Click Here find a doctor

Go to AAL to learn in detail about pee collection from the only laboratory which knows how to separate pee into mental health and gut measures. i.e. their pyrrole results is a single measure of pyrroles, not mixed with other products. They do not rely on you having to take a sample early in the morning (in the past they hoped this measured Urobilinogen at its lowest concentration) Sorry AAL is only Australian based.

Donate to our original research which will make this test an even better measure, help spread this improved test to other countries, and help more people with unsolved problems. Click Here

Note. Not all mental health is associated with a high urinary pyrroles measure. For those with high pyrroles it is very comforting to know there is a reason for feeling so messy and that something practical can be done to help.

Pyrrole, Kryptopyrrole, Pyrrole Disorder, Pyrrole Condition, Pyrroluria, Kryptopyrole, Pyroluria, Pyrrole Syndrome.

These are all names used to describe a chemical found in the urine which has been clinically shown to be associated with several chronic mental health issues. It can also be called the MAUVE FACTOR.

No research has confirmed it to be a condition, syndrome or disorder, or genetic.

Our research has shown:

• A measure of Pyrroles in Urine is not a diagnosis, but a biomarker of measure of oxidative stress. The stress must be managed for long term reduction of symptoms, along with re-balancing of biochemistry.

• The correct term is High or Elevated Urinary Pyrroles.

• As Urinary Pyrroles are unstable, it is essential that collection and transportation of urine is done under strict standardized conditions to maximize reliability of results. Poor collection and handling can result in false readings.

Who does Pyrroles in Urine testing?

The only dedicated Pyrroles in Urine testing laboratory in Australia is Applied Analytical Laboratories Pty Ltd (AAL). AAL is the leaders in investigating the origin of elevated urinary pyrroles.

Others use a kit form or other in-house kits which are not yet validated.
Applied Analytical Laboratories’ collection, transportation and extraction method has not changed since commencement of their Urinary Pyrroles testing activities in early 2010.

As a result of their regulatory review and further research, what has changed is:

1. Improvement in the sensitivity of the testing process
2. Reference ranges are now specific to adult Australians, and
3. Distinct separation of Urinary Pyrroles and Urobilinogen, and the reporting of both.
4. Siemens 10SG dipstick calibrated reading machine provides other measures which may point to different diagnoses

What is the Pyrroles in Urine Test? Answer

To be scientific:

The test is a co-measure of TWO different processes.

1.) Internal circulatory process of Oxidative stress and redox chemistry
2.) Result of bacterial action in the gut.

The test is only of use if patients have symptoms of mental health and if other factors in blood are measured at the same time.

The test is only useful if the collection, storage and transport protocols are followed.
In non-medical terms:

1) Pyrrole
Pyrrole is a waste product not normally found in the Urine of healthy people.
Pyrrole in urine tells us the body is under stress.
The amount of Pyrrole tells us how much stress.
The change in the amount of pyrrole tells us how well the body is healing.
Lowering pyrrole levels can be both reducing the stress and improving the biochemistry.

2) Urobilinogen
Is found in small amounts in the urine of healthy people.
Too much Urobilinogen can be related to poor Kidney function.
Too little can indicate gallstones or blocked bile duct or some medications.
Both levels of Urobilinogen can present with mental health like symptoms.

What is the collection process for the Pyrroles in Urine Test? Answer

Collection Process: Pyrroles in Urine


Step one: Visit a practitioner trained to understand the pyrrole result for a patient interview and request form.

Step two: Take your request form to your nearest collection agency which collects for Pyrroles in Urine (Urinary DAPS Test) link for agencies from AAL site

Step three: Complete the request form fully including the payment page for the testing process. The Collection agency will charge you, on the day, for the collection, storage and transport costs.

Step three: First time test? Have the test before you commence zinc supplements or, if on them, cease zinc supplements five days before your test. Follow up test? Please DO NOT cease Zinc if it is a follow up test.

Step three: Take your specimen pot to the toilet and half fill it with urine. Screw the lid on firmly and wrap the pot in the foil provided and return it to the desk.

The Collection Centre will note the time of collection on the request form.

Step Four: The collection centre will freeze your pot immediately and arrange transport, on dry ice, to the Laboratory.

Check the Collection centre is sending your sample to the laboratory stated on your request form. Only AAL provides the correct separation of pyrroles in urine from other contaminants. If it is sent to another laboratory you will have to pay for another test.

Step five: On receipt of the urine sample the testing payment will be processed by the Laboratory. Testing will not commence until payment is processed.

The sample cannot be used after three weeks frozen so you will have to pay for a retest if you do not have your correct payment details. This will delay commencement of an accurate treatment program.

Step six: The Laboratory will upload your results into your file at your doctor/ health practitioner clinic. Any abnormal results of Pyrrole, Urobilinogen or other extreme results seen in the Urinary DAPS test will be passed on by AAL to your doctor/ health practitioner urgently, who will call you in.

Step seven: Return to your doctor/health practitioner to discuss your treatment plan based on all your test results.

Step eight: Repeat the pyrrole test (and any other tests needed), when required, to monitor how you are responding to your treatment.


List Medications used with Rheumatoid Arthritis and/and Urinary Tract Infections as they can interfere with the test, as does Rifampicin which changes the urine to a red/mauve colour. If on these medications consult your physician as you will need to complete the course and/or abstain for a wash out period of 4 weeks prior to collecting a sample. For some, this is not possible. List statin drugs on the request form, as some block Urobilinogen production.

Blood does NOT affect the test result, so spotting at the beginning or end of menstrual cycle will not interfere with the result. It is NOT recommended to collect during peak menstruation.

Interference: Very high levels of urinary bilirubin DO also interfere with the Pyrroles measure. However, this is rare and you will be informed if this is the case. The time of collection needs to be noted on the form to help account for obtained Urobilinogen levels.


As Pyrroles in Urine are waste products they are not stable. To protect your sample to get the most accurate results please ensure you follow these collection rules.

The supplied specimen jar must be immediately covered with foil to protect it from UV light and heat and from incidental high energy electromagnetic radiation (EMR).

The sample is to be frozen immediately and kept covered and frozen from the time of collection till the time of testing in the laboratory.

Samples are transported in dry ice to keep the relative temperature below freezing (at -30oC).

Pyrroles Results very high or very low?

The laboratory is obliged to notify the doctor when the urinary pyrroles result is greater than 400ug/dL, urobilinogen is greater than 16µmol/L, or other parameters are detected (such as, bilirubin, blood, ketones, protein, nitrites and leucocytes. These can illuminate if a patient has liver/kidney function issues, diabetes, infection or other protein dysregulation factors. Currently Applied Analytical Laboratories (AAL) is the only facility to meet this requirement and successfully participate in RCPA conducted proficiency programs for this system as an extra level of assurance.
What do I do if I have high Urinary Pyrroles? Answer

It is important to primarily identify and manage the cause of the underlying oxidative stress. Measures of biochemistry are essential to direct re-balancing of nutrients lost because of the excess demand caused by a stress reaction.

A doctor trained by Bio Balance Health in the Walsh/Pfeiffer method will know how to do this and manage the process which is individualised to each patient. Exploration of a product in urine associated with mental health started with Abram Hoffer and Carl Pfeiffer (physician and biochemist) when they noted extracts of urine from schizophrenics turned mauve upon the addition of a specific reagent.

The identification of High Urinary Pyrroles has changed many lives as reduction of the pyrrole measure correlates with reduction of symptoms of many unexplained health issues. The understanding that very High Urinary Pyrrole is also often associated with some forms of mental ill health has reduced the stigma and the loss of hope felt by many with a mental health diagnosis. The processes to reduce high pyrroles are not meant to replace current chronic health management but to enhance it. Symptoms associated with high pyrrole vary as the underlying stress varies. This explains why there are so many symptoms listed as associated with high pyrroles and how each person with high pyrroles manifest different responses.

It is apparent to Bio Balance Health doctors that management of high pyrrole has been life changing for many people. Bio Balance Health supports further research in this area. Brett Lambert, principal of AAL leads this research.


In 2018, an Australian laboratory (Applied Analytical Laboratories) became the first to include measurement of urobilinogen in their testing process.

Urobilinogen is a by-product of normal gut function as opposed to oxidative stress and is co-measured in the assay.

Separation of these urine components allows for identification of additional pathologies (e.g. obstructed bile duct, haemolytic anaemia, or hepatitis) and is critical for correct interpretation. The distinction allows a more accurate identification of the composition of the sample as falsely treated results can exacerbate symptoms and/or lead to vitamin B6 toxicity.

The laboratory report will give clear reference ranges for both Urobilinogen and Pyrroles, and measure for other parameters.

Bio Balance Health introduced the pyrroles in urine test into Australia.

After using the test for a few years, we asked the question:

What are we testing?

We can now say that any previous publication or research or opinions or social media sites are all based on the incorrect premise that pyrroles are a diagnosis.

Through our research this test now provides excellent guidance:
– regarding severity of oxidative stress.
– different diagnoses which should be investigated.

Research to verify the usefulness of testing to provide measures which may point to underlying chemistry which can be repaired, and which can indicate if the treatment is helping, is a core activity of Bio Balance Health.
Research also shows there are differences in the chemistry of each mental health sufferer.
It is essential doctors understand these differences as incorrect use of medication and/or nutrients may increase the patient’s symptoms.

We have trained many doctors to use these skills and their results populate our training and our research. Their results also inspire the team at Bio Balance Health to drive research and training, as doctors who use our training are heavily booked.

Much of our work is pre-publication. See these references which illustrate our research.

Our research is self-funded. If you wish to increase and/or speed up our projects please donate……..


If you wish to support further understanding of High Urinary Pyrroles and therefore ensure it becomes recognised by the broader medical world then please hit the donate button on this site and we will direct funds to assist the current research. If you or your family have been assisted by the understanding of how urinary pyrrole levels affect your health, then please make life better for others by supporting this research. A receipt for tax deduction will be issued with your donation. When researching biochemistry it is amazing how much can be achieved with very little money, so anything you donate will help.

Bio Balance Health recommends you use a doctor trained by them who have experience in managing the process. Self-diagnosis and self-medication is fraught with difficulties and will not achieve optimal results.

Subscribe to view the Science of Pyrroles in Urine online lecture here:


The following are references from Australian Research which has advanced understanding of measuring urinary pyrrole. Applied Analytical Laboratories data has been used and/or they have actively participated in the studies published in 1,2,3,6 & 7 below and are currently involved in ongoing research.

  1. Biomark Res. 2015 Feb 6;3:3. doi: 10.1186/s40364-015-0028-1. eCollection 2015.
    Biomarkers of a five-domain translational substrate for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychosis. Fryar-Williams S1, Strobel JE.
  2. Biomark Res. 2016 Nov 9;7:172. eCollection 2016.
    Fundamental Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677 C → T Genotype and Flavin Compounds in Biochemical Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Psychosis. Fryar-Williams S.
  3. Front Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 14;7:48. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00048. eCollection 2016.
    Biomarker Case-Detection and Prediction with Potential for Functional Psychosis Screening: Development and Validation of a Model Related to Biochemistry, Sensory Neural Timing and End Organ Performance.
    Fryar-Williams S1, Strobel JE.
  4. Clinical Psychological Science, 2016. Vol. 4(1), 144-162,
    Nutritional interventions in clinical depression. Rechenberg, K. (2015)
  5. Psychiatr. Pol 2014; 48(1): 75-88,
    Does the usual dietary intake of patients with depression require vitamin mineral supplementation?
    Stefańska EWendołowicz AKowzan UKonarzewska BSzulc AOstrowska L.
  6. ACNEM Journal, Vol 29 No.3, 2010
    The Effectiveness of Targeted Nutrient Therapy In Treatment of Mental Illness – A Pilot Study”; Richard Stuckey, William Walsh, Brett Lambert.
  7. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2017 Nov; 27(9): 823-832;
    Micronutrient Therapy for Violent and Aggressive Male Youth: An Open Label Trial;
    Hambly, J., Francis, K., Khan, S., Gibbons, K., Walsh, W., Lambert, B., Testa, C., & Haywood, A., doi: 10.1089/cap.2016.0199. Epub 2017 May 8.

Published Research – February 2023:

Improve treatment of mental health symptoms by identifying chemical imbalances related to oxidative stress and other disorders, particularly bile disorders.

Pyrroles as a Potential Biomarker for Oxidative Stress Disorders

by Brett Lambert, Annalese Semmler, Cristina Beer and Joanne Voisey